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What do the numbers in IP ratings mean?

The first number refers to the protection from dust the second to the protection from moisture.

The first number. Dust Protection.
0. Not Protected.
1. Protected against large solids.
2. Protected against middle solids.
3. Protected against small solids.
4. Protected against grainy solids.
5. Dust Protected.
6. Dust Tight.

The second number. Water Protection.
0. Not protected.
1. Protected against vertically falling water.
2. Protected against vertically falling water if enclosure is tilted up to 15 degrees.
3. Protected against spraying water.
4. Protected against splashing water.
5. Protected against water jets.
6. Protected against floods.
7. Protected against the effects of temporary immersion in water.
8. Protected against the effects of continuous immersion in water.